In my usage, a verb is transitive if it can be followed (“completed”) by a direct object. Thus:
- I struck the board.
An intransitive verb cannot take a direct object:
- The sun rose.
I do not allow a category for “indirectly transitive” verbs, e.g., those taking an indirect object.
Some verbs can be at times intransitive, at times transitive:
- Intransitive: “She ran very fast.”
- Transitive: “She has run the good race.”
Copulative (linking) verbs belong in a category of their own, but for our purposes can be considered intransitive:
- He is too big for his britches.
- You smell nice.
- She seemed distraught.
- You look terrible.
- This milk tastes sour.